Burkina Faso President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré has in a decree dismissed Prime Minister Christophe Joseph Marie Dabiré and dissolved the government.
"The functions of the prime minister are terminated, the government is dissolved," a presidential decree said.
There is no indication yet of when a future head of government will be appointed.
The West African country of 20.5 million people has been plagued since 2015 by recurrent jihadist attacks that have left a million people internally displaced.
Mr Kaboré has promised to bring "security and stability" to the country in his second and last term.
So far he has not succeeded in this task and he faces growing anger from the population.